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Punjab lies in northwestern India between the Indus and Ganges rivers at 29'30" N to 32'32" N latitude and 73'55" to 76'50"E longitude. It is bordered by Pakistan on the West, the Indian states of Jammu & Kashmir on the North, Himachal Pradesh on its Northeast and Haryana & Rajasthan to its South. The arid Southern part of the state borders the Thar Desert, and the Siwalik Range rises sharply in the North. The total area of Punjab is 50,362 Sq. Kms.
As in other states of the Indian Union, the governor (the constitutional head of the administration) is appointed by the president of India. The governor is aided and advised by a Council of Ministers, which is led by a chief minister and responsible to the Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The legislature was bicameral until January 1970, when the upper chamber was abolished. The state is divided into 17 districts: Amritsar(5,075 Sq. Kms.), Bathinda (3,377 Sq. Kms.), Faridkot (1,472 Sq. Kms.), Fatehgarh Sahib (1,180 Sq. Kms.), Ferozepur (5,865 Sq. Kms.), Gurdaspur (3,570 Sq. Kms.), Hoshiarpur 3,310 Sq. Kms.), Jalandhar(2,658 Sq. Kms.), Kapurthala (1,633 Sq. Kms.), Ludhiana (3,744 Sq. Kms.), Mansa (2,174 Sq. Kms.), Moga (1,672 Sq. Kms.), Mutksar (2,596 Sq. Kms.), Nawan Shehar (1,258 Sq. Kms.), Patiala (3,627 Sq. Kms.), Rupnagar (Ropar)(2,117 Sq. Kms.), and Sangrur (5,021 Sq. Kms.). At the head of the judiciary is the High Court, located in Chandigarh, which Punjab shares with Haryana. There are also district-level courts. Appeals from decisions of the High Court are directed to the Supreme Court of the Indian Union.
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